AEADs: getting better at symmetric cryptography (16 May 2015)
I gave a talk a couple of weeks ago at the Yahoo Unconference. The conference was at the end of a particually hard week for a bunch of reasons and I fear that the talk wasn't that great. (Afterwards I got home about 3pm and pretty much slept until the following morning.) This post is a, hopefully clearer, articulation of its contents.
I've been primarily working on getting Google products switched over to BoringSSL for a little over a year now. (Chromium is done on many platforms and AOSP switched recently.) This is neccessary work, but it doesn't exactly lend itself to talk material. So the talk was titled “Lessons Learnt from Questions”—the idea being that smart developers at Google often ask lots of cryptography questions, and from those questions one can tell what is unclear in existing documentation. Points that are not obvious to smart, non-experts are thus good topics to talk about because it's likely that lots of people are missing them.
I was aiming for an hour but, due to a misunderstanding in the weeks prior, I thought that I had to cut it down to 20 minutes, so I ditched all but one question:
“How do I encrypt lots of records given a per-user key?” —Anonymous developer
This question is about applying symmetric cryptography, which is the originally motivation of all of cryptography. You would have thought that we would have figured it out by now, but we totally haven't.
In the 1990's it was common for cryptographers to produce block ciphers and hash functions, and then developers would be tasked with composing them. In the talk I stepped through the design of, and attacks on, the SSLv3/TLS CBC construction as a demonstration that plausible-sounding design features can lead to disaster, but I'm going to omit that here because it worked better live. (Phillip Rogaway tried to warn about these issues when SSL, IPSec, etc were being developed, but sadly the right people didn't listen to him.)
So, for quite a long time now, cryptographers have understood that block ciphers and hash functions are too low-level an abstraction and that the constructions themselves need to be studied and standardised. The result is called authenticated encryption (AE), and let's ponder what it might look like.
Obviously an AE function must take some plaintext and, if it's symmetric encryption, it must take a key. We also assume that its going to take care of both confidentiality and authenticity for us, so not only will an attacker not be able to tell the plaintext from the ciphertext but, if the ciphertext is altered in any way, the decryption will fail cleanly. So let's experiment with a hypothetical SSH-like protocol that's trying to protect a series of key presses:
Oh no! The two l's in “hello” turned into the same ciphertext, so an attacker can see patterns in the input reflected in the ciphertext. That's pretty terrible; clearly we need our AE function to map the same plaintext to different ciphertexts. There's two ways that can happen: either the function is non-deterministic (i.e. it reads entropy internally as a hidden input), or we pass in some varying argument. Explicit is better than implicit so we choose the latter and add an argument called the nonce:
We assume that n0…4 are all distinct and thus the two l's now get different ciphertexts and patterns in the plaintext have been eliminated. Note that (for now) we need to include the nonce value with the ciphertext because it'll be needed when decrypting.
(As an aside: if you've done anything with cryptography before you've probably come across the acronym “IV”, for initialisation vector. Although not completely standard, I differentiate an IV and an nonce thus: an IV needs to be unpredictable while an nonce needs only to be distinct. The values 0, 1, 2, … are distinct, but they aren't unpredictable. For something like CBC mode, which needs an IV, using a counter would be unacceptable.)
We solved one problem but there's another thing that an evil attacker might do: reorder messages:
|AE(key, ‘h’, n0) → (α, n0)||(γ, n2)|
|AE(key, ‘e’, n1) → (β, n1)||(δ, n4)|
|AE(key, ‘l’, n2) → (γ, n2)||…untrusted network…||(α, n0)|
|AE(key, ‘l’, n3) → (ɛ, n3)||(ɛ, n3)|
|AE(key, ‘o’, n4) → (δ, n4)||(β, n1)|
All the ciphertexts on the right are perfectly valid and coupled with a valid nonce, but they end up decrypting to “lohle”—hardly what was intended.
There are two solutions to this. The first is to use an implicit nonce: don't transmit the nonce, just use a counter for each direction. Now, if a message is out of order, the receiver will attempt to decrypt it with the wrong nonce and it'll fail to decrypt. That works perfectly well for transport protocols like SSH and TLS because it's easy to keep a counter in those situations, but sometimes the problem isn't quite so synchronous. For these cases, one could include a sequence number or other context in the plaintext and that works fine, but it's a waste of space if the receiver already knew the information and just wanted to confirm it.
This motivates a common extension to authenticated encryption called authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). The associated data is another argument, of arbitrary length, which must be equal at the encryption and decryption ends:
In this example the associated data happens to be a counter, but it could be anything. The associated data isn't included in the ciphertext, but it must be identical when decrypting otherwise the decryption will fail. In other protocols it could equally well be some context denoting, say, the first or last record. This is the second solution to the reordering problem.
The associated data might seem quite a lot like an nonce. They both need to be presented at encryption and decryption time and they must both match for decryption to succeed, so why do we bother having both? Mostly because the associated data is free-form: you can have as much or as little of it as you like and you can repeat it etc. The requirements of an nonce are much stricter, in fact if you remember only one thing from this please remember this, which I'm calling The Law of AEADs:
Thou shall never reuse the same (key, nonce) pair, for all time. (With high probability.)
So, if you generate a random key and use it to encrypt a single message, it's ok to set the nonce to zero. If you generate a random key and encrypt a series of messages you must ensure that the nonce never repeats. A counter is one way to do this, but if you need to store that counter on disk then stop: the chances of you screwing up and reusing an nonce value are way too high in designs like that.
It would be nice if reusing an nonce just meant that the same plaintext would result in the same ciphertext. That's the least bad thing that an AEAD could do in that situation. However the reality is significantly worse: common AEADs tend to lose confidentiality of messages with a repeated nonce and authenticity tends to collaspe completely for all messages. (I.e. it's very bad.) We like these common AEADs because they're fast, but you must have a solid story about nonce uniqueness. AEADs like AES-GCM and ChaCha20-Poly1305 fail in this fashion.
So what should you do when using a counter isn't trivially safe? One option is to generate the nonce at random and consider the probability of duplicates. AES-GCM takes a 96-bit nonce and NIST says that you can only encrypt 232 messages under a single key if using random nonces. This is because if you throw 232 balls at 296 buckets then you have roughly a 2-33 chance of getting two in the same bucket and NIST drew the line there. That probability might seem either high or low to you. It's pretty small in absolute terms and, unlike a work factor, an attacker can't spend resources against it, but it's a very long way from the safety margins that we usually use in cryptography. So there are also functions like crypto_secretbox_xsalsa20poly1305 (from NaCl) that have a 192-bit nonce. The probabilities with random nonces are much more comforting at that size.
Another approach would be to use an AEAD that doesn't fail quite so catastrophically when an nonce is repeated. This is called an nonce-misuse resistant AEAD and we're hitting the boundary of developed practice now. The CAESAR competition has several nonce-misuse resistant entries in it, although it's not scheduled to conclude until 2018. Closer to established primitives, Gueron and Lindell propose an AES-GCM-SIV mode with a strong foundation (assuming that you trust AES-GCM) and good performance (assuming that you have good AES-GCM performance).
AEADs with large plaintexts
If you look at AEAD APIs you'll generally notice that they take the entire plaintext or ciphertext at once. In other words, they aren't “streaming” APIs. This is not a mistake, rather it's the streaming APIs that are generally a mistake.
I've complained about this in the past, so I'll be brief here. In short, old standards (e.g. PGP) will encrypt plaintexts of any length and then put an authenticator at the end. The likely outcome of such a design is that some implementations will stream out unauthenticated plaintext and only notice any problem when they get to the end of the ciphertext and try to check the authenticator. But by that time the damage has been done—it doesn't take much searching to find people suggesting piping the output of gpg to tar or even a shell.
So, if streaming is required, large plaintexts should be chunked and each chunk should easily fit into a “one-shot” API like those linked to above. That prevents unauthenticated plaintext from being processed. However, there is no standard for this; it's another case where we've hit the borders of existing practice. Implementations need to construct the nonces and associated data so that the first chunk is known to be the first, so that each chunk is in order and so that truncation is always detectable.
Streaming decryption always runs the risk of an attacker truncating the ciphertext however. Designs must always be able to detect truncation, but it's very easy to imagine that the rest of a system doesn't handle it well. (For example, see the Cookie Cutter attack against HTTPS.)
If streaming isn't essential then an all-or-nothing transform would be ideal. But, again, there's no substantial standards or practice around this. Hopefully in ten years or so there will be clear answers for this and for large-plaintext constructions with AEADs (AERO is a start). But, for now, even symmetric encryption isn't a “solved problem”.