Elliptic curves don't work either (08 Apr 2008)
(For context, see my previous post on OTCP)
In any Diffie-Hellman exchange based on elliptic curves, we have Q=aP where P and Q are points on an elliptic curve. The operation of multiplying a point and a scalar is well defined, but unimportant here. The problem facing the attacker is, given Q and P, find a. If they can do that, we're sunk.
If you could find a pair of numbers such that: cP + dQ = eP + fQ then you're done because: (c-e)P = (f-d)Q = (f-d)aP, then a = (c-e)/(f-d) mod n, where n is the size of the field underlying the curve.
Finding such a point by picking random examples is never going to work because of the storage requirements. However, if you define a step function which takes a pair (c, d) and produces a new pair (c', d') you have defined a cycle through the search space. (It must be a cycle because the search space is finite. At some point you must hit a previous state and loop forever.) Now you can use Floyd's cycle finding algorithm to find a collision with constant space. This is an √n algorithm for breaking this problem and is well known as Pollard's rho method.
Now, if you have many of these problems you get a big speed up by using some storage. Assume that you do the legwork to solve an instance of the problem and that you record some fraction of the points that you evaluated. (How you choose the points isn't important so long as it's a function of the point; say pick all points where the first m bits are zero.)
Now, future attempts to break the problem can collide with one of the previous points. If you find cP + dQ = eP + fR (note that P is a constant of the elliptic curve system) and also that R = bP (because we solved this instance previously) then cP + dQ = cP + adP = (e+fb)P and so (c-(e+fb)) / d = a (and we know all the values on the left-hand side).
Now, 2112 (14 bytes) is about as big an elliptic curve point as we can fit in a TCP header. The maximum options payload is 40 bytes, of which 20 are already taken up in modern TCP stacks. We need 2 bytes of fluff per option and, unless we want this to be the last TCP header ever, we need to leave at least 4 bytes. That's where the 14 byte limit comes from.
We give the attacker 250 bytes of space. I believe that each point will take 3*14 bytes of space for the (c,d,Y) triple, where Y = cP+dQ. Thus they can store 244 distinguished points. Thus one in 256-44=12 points are distinguished. Additionally, generating those 244 points isn't that hard, computationally. This suggests that an attacker can find a collision in only 212 iterations., or about 213 field multiplications.
So, again, a reasonable attacker can break our crypto in real time.
This scheme becomes much harder to sell if we have to do evil things to the TCP header in order to make it work.