I have somewhat mixed feelings about using lazy lists in Haskell for IO. As a quick introduction - there is a technique in Haskell which lets you write pure fuctional code which processes a stream (lazy list) of data and have that stream of data be read/written on demand. This lets you write very neat stuff like:
BSL.interact (BSL.map ((+) 1))
which will, with the correct imports, read chunks of bytes from stdin, add one to each byte (with overflow) and write the chunks back to stdout.
Now, in one sense this is beautiful, but it really limits the error handling which is where my mixed feelings come from. None the less, I just used it in some code and it did lead to really nice code.
I was writing a very simple IRC bot. I need it to monitor a channel and pick out certain messages. These messages come from the paging system and happen when something goes wrong. I then pipe them out to dzen and have them appear in the middle of the screen.
To do this I wrote a pure functional IRC client which isn't in the IO monad and is typed like this:
data IRCEvent = IRCLine String deriving (Show) data IRCMessage = IRCMessage String String String | IRCCommand String | IRCTerminal | IRCError String deriving (Show) ircSnoop :: [IRCEvent] -> [IRCMessage]
Think about what an IRC client would be if it were an element in a dataflow graph. It gets a stream of lines from the server and produces two streams: a stream of data to send to the server (joining channels, replying to pings etc) and a stream of results (events from the paging system in this case). Here, IRCEvent is the type of the input stream. It's a type because I originally had extra input events (join/part a channel etc), but I removed them and lines from the server are all that remains. The two output streams are merged into one and separated by type; so the output stream has to be tee'ed, partly going back to the IRC server and partly to the logic which figures out if the message is important and showing it if it is.
The code to reply to the IRC server:
ircWrite handle ((IRCCommand line):messages) = do hPutStrLn handle (line ++ "\r") hFlush handle ircWrite handle messages ircWrite handle (x:messages) = unsafeInterleaveIO (ircWrite handle messages) >>= return . ((:) x)
In the case of an IRCCommand result, we write it to the server and loop. Otherwise, we return the element of the list and, process the rest. Note the use of unsafeInterleaveIO because otherwise we would write this equation:
ircWrite handle (x:messages) = do rest <- ircWrite handle messages return (x : rest)
However, that wouldn't produce any results until we hit the end of the messages list. unsafeInterleaveIO lets us return a result and only perform an IO action when the value is forced.
So, this works really well in this case. The IRC protocol handling is very clean and it's very little code to do quite a lot. So in this case, lazy IO works. I don't have a good example of where it doesn't right now, but when I hit one I'll write it up.